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sheng jiang 生薑 (fresh ginger)         (in English and Chinese 中英文)

gan jiang 乾薑: dry ginger

hei jiang 黑薑 (pao jiang  炮薑 ): (black roasted ginger)

sheng jiang pi, (fresh ginger skin) 生薑皮

 

By: Joe Hing Kwok Chu

 

Click here to see sheng jiang (raw ginger) picture. 按此看生姜圖。

Pharmaceutical name:

英文药名:

Rhizoma zingiberis officinalis

Biological name:

拉丁學名:

Zingiber officinale Rosc.

Pron. in Japanese:

日語發音:

shokyo  raw ginger 生姜)

Pron. in Korean

韓語發音:

saenggang (raw ginger 生姜)

Pron. in Cantonese:

粵語發音:

saang1  geong1  (raw ginger 生姜)

Common Name:

英文名:

fresh ginger

Distribution:

分布:

most part of China 中國大多地區。

Properties (characteristics)

性味:

acrid, warm .

辛,溫。

Channels (meridians) entered:

歸經:

lung, spleen, stomach

肺,脾,胃。

Actions & Indications:

主 治:

Sheng jiang means fresh ginger: Evaporates the exterior and rids of coldness, warms the middle burner (jiao) and alleviates stuffy nose, pain of intestine hernia, vomiting, stops coughing with chronic lung disorders with phlegm, reduces the toxicity of other herbs (like fu zi, ban xia). For sweaty feet, frost bite, sore mouth and tongue, body odor from armpits, itchiness, for preventing sea sickness.

Gan jiang means dry ginger. Gan jiang is mainly used in warming the middle, purge coldness, correct yangxu condition which is to improve circulation, rid of  cold and pain of chest and of abdomen, lower back pain and chronic diarrhea.

Pao jiang (hei jiang) means baked ginger. It is for warming the digestive system, getting rid of heat due to deficiency, for cold pain of chest and abdomen, flatulence, diarrhea. dysentry, stop bleeding, rid of clot blood, vomiting blood, diarrhea with blood, excessive bleeding during premenopausal stage.

Sheng jiang pi means fresh ginger peels: It is acrid, cool, being used in edema, difficulty in urination; taken as decoction.

生薑 主治 :驅寒溫中﹐通鼻﹐治小腸氙氣﹐嘔吐﹐肺 虛痰 多久咳﹐減輕其他藥物毒素(如 附子﹐半夏)﹐腳汗多﹐凍瘡﹐口舌生瘡 ﹐狐臭﹐皮膚發癢﹐防暈船。

乾 薑主治 :

溫 中 , 散 寒 , 回 陽 ,宣 通 脈 。 心 腹 冷 痛 , 腰 痛 , 瀉 下 ,

反 胃 乾 嘔 , 淤 血 , 肕 血 。

炮 薑 (黑薑)主 治 :  溫 脾 胃 , 退 虛 熱 。 心 腹 冷 痛 , 脹 滿 ,下 痢 , 霍 亂 ,止血、去 瘀血﹐肕 血 , 吐 血 , 血 痢 , 崩 漏 。

生薑皮主 治為 生薑根莖切下的外表皮。性味辛,涼。功能和脾行水消腫,主要用於水腫,小便不利。煎服

Medical functions:

藥理:

Medical functions of sheng jiang:

  1. Protects liver cells from damage from CCl4 ,

  2. Anti-bacteria (especially Salmonella)

  3. Lowers blood lipids

  4. Cholagogue (promotes bile secretion)

  5. Reduces pain

  6. Calming

  7. Anti inflammation

  8. Anti coagulation of platelets

  9. Anti allergy

  10. Anti tumors

  11. Anti hair growth: external use

  12. Prevents sea sickness

  13. Effect on E. Coli (see Modern Research item)

  14. Prevents dropping of fibrinolytic activity from eating fatty meals [3]

 

The ingredient, gingerol, can inhibit the abnormal fermentation inside the intestine and help expel gas. It possesses the effect of :

anti peptic ulcer, promoting the flowing of bile, protecting  liver, cardiac stimulation, inhibiting platelet coagulation, preventing dizziness, anti-tumor, inhibiting CNS, improving auto-immune function, antibiotic (especially Salmonella), killing parasites, anti-inflammation, and anti-oxident, anti bacteria  and anti-trichomoniasis

 

生姜藥理:

保護 肝細胞避免被四氯化炭所傷,抗菌,尤其是沙門尼拉菌,降低血脂,促進膽汁分泌。止痛,鎮靜,消炎,防止血小板凝聚,防敏感,抗腫瘤,外用可防止毛 髮生長,防止暈浪,對大腸桿菌之作 用 (見現代研究條)。

防止吃高脂肪餐後,而使纖溶活性下降[3]

姜 辣素(gingerol)能抑制腸內的異常發酵和促積氣排出 。  具有健胃抗胃潰瘍、利膽、保肝、強心、抑制血小板聚集、防暈、抗腫瘤、中樞抑制、增強免疫力、抗菌、殺虫、消炎之作用,還具有很強 的抗氧化能 力,抗陰道毛滴蟲症

Chemical ingredients:

化 學成份:

2-heptanol

第二 庚醇

1,3,3-trimethyltricyclo[2,2,1,0] heptane

1,3,3-三 甲基三环[2.2.1.02,6]-庚烷

tricycline

三環烯

α-pinene

α-蒎 烯

β-fenchene

β-葑 烯

β-pinene

β-蒎 烯

 5-hepten-2-one-6-mehtyl

6-甲-5-庚 烯-2-酮

myrcene

月桂

octanal

正辛 醛

α-thujene

α-侧 柏烯

zingiberol

姜醇

zingiberene

姜烯

α-curcumene

α-姜 黃烯

linalool

芳樟 醇

cineole

桉油 素

phellandrene

水芹 烯

camphene

樟腦 萜(莰芬)

citral

柠檬醛

linalol

伽羅 木醇

methylheptenone

甲基庚烯酮

nonyl aldehyde

壬醛

gingerol

姜辣醇

gingediol

姜辣 二醇

methylgingediol

甲基姜辣二醇

gingediacetate

姜辣 二醇双乙酸酯

methylgingediacetate

甲基姜辣二醇双乙酸酯

L-2-Amino-3-
ureidopropionic acid
(albizziin)

L-脲基丙氨酸

zingerone

姜酮

shogaol

姜烯酚

3,7,11-Trimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrien-1-ol (farnesol)

3,7,11-三 甲基-2,6,10-十二烷三烯-1-醇

hexahydrocurcumin

六氢姜黄素

bisabolene

紅沒藥烯

curcumene

姜黄烯

d-borneol

d-龍腦

borneol

龍腦

isoborneol

龍 腦

terpinen-4-ol

松油烯-4-醇

neal

燈花醛

geranial

牻牛兒醛 (香 茅醛)

borneyl acetate

乙酸龍腦酯

citronellyl acetate

相貌醇乙酸酯

α-cubebene

α-荜 澄茄油

geranyl acetate

牻牛兒醇乙 酸

α-copaene

α-蒎 烯

β-clemene

β-榄 香烯

β-caryophyliene

β-石 竹烯

γ-clemene

γ-榄 香烯

α-bergamotene

α-佛 手柑油烯

trans-β-farnesene

反式β-金合欢烯

1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3, 5-octanediol

1-(4-羥 基-3-甲氧基苯基)-3-(4-甲基苯基)3,5-辛 二醇

5-diacetoxyoctane

5-二乙酸氧基辛烷

Dosage:

用量:

Fresh ginger: 3 ~ 8 grams per day in decoction.

Dry ginger:1 ~ 3 grams per day, in powder form.

Fresh ginger skin: 3 ~ 10 grams per day in decoction.

生薑: 每日3~8 克。入湯剤。

乾薑:每日 3 克。作粉剤。

生薑皮:每日3~10g。入 湯剤。

Samples of formulae:

處方舉例:

  1. sheng jiang: gui zhi tang, ma huang tang,

  2. hei jiang (pao jiang): sheng hua tang, huang qi gui zhi wu wu tang

  3. gan jiang: li zhong tang

 

  1. 生姜桂 枝湯, 麻黃湯, 黃耆桂枝五物湯

  2. 炮姜: 生化湯 

  3. 乾薑:理 中湯

Modern Research:

現代研究:

Gingerol decreases after processing and storage of ginger[1]

Effect on E. coli:  an active ingredient of ginger, zingerone, can significantly blocked the binding of enterotoxin to cell-surface receptor GM1, resulting in the inhibition of fluid accumulation in the closed ileal loops of mice, thus preventing diarrhea[2]

生薑加 工後或存儲過久其姜辣醇份 量會減低。【1】

對大腸桿菌之 作用:生薑的化學 成份之一,薑酮,能防止大腸桿菌分泌的腸毒素粘附於细胞表面的感 受器而防止液體積迴腸內而以防止腹瀉。【2】

Cautions:

禁忌:

do not use in case of yinxu (yin deficient) or in stomach heat with vomiting.

 陰虛內 熱及實熱証或胃熱嘔吐者禁服。

 [1]http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119264711/abstract

 [2] J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Oct 17;55(21):8390-7. Epub 2007 Sep 20.

[3] Verma S K, Bordia A. Ginger, fat and fibrinolysis. Indian J Med Sci 2001;55:83-6

 

See: Chemical Ingredient bibliography

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Last update:July 7, 2013; 12:29 a.m. LAH            jiang.htm    sheng_jiang.htm   ginger.htm