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da huang   大黃      (in English and Chinese 中英文)

Translated and Compiled by: Joe Hing Kwok Chu

Present Day Application:

For serious injuries, losing large amount of blood, infection, shock, sudden stoppage of heart or respiration, intoxication, hypoxemia , Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS), Multi-organ Failure (MOF).

It can help preventing: the inflammation of the stomach and intestine paralysis, liver cell injury in acute hepatitis, and acute lung injury.

If the above illnesses have already occurred, it can provide different degree of therapeutic effect.

 

 See picture of herb here. See picture of plant.

 

嚴重創傷﹐大失血﹐感染﹐休克﹐心跳呼吸骤停﹐中毒﹐低氧血症﹐MODS和多臟器功能衰竭(MOF)等多種危重病患者,在未出現急性胃粘膜病變和腸麻痹﹐急性肝細胞損傷﹐急性肺損傷之前應用,有 预防其發生的作用,對已出现上述臨床併發症者則有不同程度的治療作用。  按此看大黄飲片圖。 按此看植物圖

Pharmaceutical name:

英文药名:

Radix et Rhizoma Rhei

Biological name:

學名﹕

  1.   Rheum palmatum Linn (zhang ye da huang 掌葉大黃)

  2.   Rheum tanguticum Maxim. et Baill. (tang gu te da huang 唐古特大黄)

  3.  Rheum officinale Baill. (yao yong da huang 药用大黄)

Pron. in Japanese:

語發音﹕

daio

Pron. in Korean:

語發音﹕

taehwang

Pron. in Cantonese:

語發音﹕

daai6 wong4

Other Names:

別名 ﹕

jiang jun 將軍,  chuan jun﹐川軍﹐jing wen 錦紋 , chuan da huan 川大黃,

 zhi jun (prepared da huang) 制軍(制大黄)

Common Name:

Chinese rhubarb root and rhizome

Distribution:

分佈﹕

 Rheum palmatum LINN (掌葉大黃):  Sichuan, Gansu, Qinghai, Xikang

 and other provinces.

 Tang Gu Te da huang: Sichuan, Gansu, Qinghai, and other provinces.

 Medical da huang:  Hupei, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan and other provinces.

 

掌 葉 大 黃 分 布 四 川 ﹐ 甘 肅 ﹐ 青 海 ﹐ 西 康

等 省 。

 唐 古 特 大 黃 分 布 四 川 ﹐ 甘 肅 ﹐ 青 海 等 地 。

 藥 用 大 黃 分 布 湖 北 ﹐ 四 川 ﹐ 貴 州 ﹐ 雲 南

等 地 。

Properties (characteristics)

性味:

bitter, cold

苦,寒。

Channels (meridians) entered:

歸經:

heart, large intestine, liver, stomach

心,大腸,肝,胃。

Actions & Indications:主治:

  • lack of bowel movement

  • dysentery

  • blood clots

  • tumor

  • red and painful eyes

  • abdominal-distention and/or pain

  • blood in stool

  • hemorrhoidal bleeding

  • urination burning sensation

  • nose bleeding

  • coughing out blood

  • sore extremities

  • edema

  • jaundice

  • lesions

  • burns and scalding (external application)

  • absence of menses

  • Note: Cooking for more than 10 minutes will reduce its purgative effect.

    For purgative effect use raw da huang. For blood invigorating action

    use wine or vinegar treated da huang. For stop bleeding use charred

    da huang.

    • 宿 食 停 滯 ,

    • 實 熱 便 秘 ,

    • 痢 疾 ,

    • 瘀 血 ,

    • 癥 瘕 ,

    • 暴 眼 赤 痛 ,

    • 腹部脹滿﹐

    • 水 腫 ,

    • 黃 疸 ,

    • 小 使 淋 瀝 ,

    • 瘡 癤 癰 毒 。

    註:煎煮多過10分鐘能 减少瀉下作用。作瀉剤需用生大黄 。

    增加血液循環需用醋或酒大 黄。

    Medical Function:

    药理:

    Induces diarrhea: Oral administration of water or an alcohol extract created

    diarrhea in white lab mice. Its water extract did not affect the carbon powder

    movement  in the small intestine, but could promote the expelling the carbon

    powder It did not affect the amount of water in the small intestine but

    increased the water in the large intestinal.  Using the extract for muscle or

    vein injection did not induce diarrhea. The laxative effect of da huang has

    nothing to do with the blood flow but is a direct effect in the large intestine,

    causing the large intestine motility, and increase in the amount of moisture

    generated and caused the purgative effect.

    Lowers BUN (blood urea nitrogen) in the blood.

    Anti bacteria

    Anti virus: water extract possesses anti virus effect; anti HBV [1]

     

    瀉 下 作 用: 本 品 水 或 醇 抽 取 物, 對 於 小 白 鼠 經 口 給藥 有 瀉 下 作 用 。 其 水 抽 取 物 不 影 響 小 腸 內 炭 末 輸 送 作 用 ,但 能 促 進 炭 末 排 泄 作 用 , 不 影 響 小 腸 內 水 分 量 ,能 增 加 大 腸 內 水 分 量 。 抽 取 物 以 肌 肉 或 靜 脈 內 注 射 給 藥 時,則 不 發 生 瀉 下 作 用 。 本 品 瀉 下 作用 與 血 行 無 關 , 乃 直 接 作 用 於 大 腸 , 引 起 大>腸 運 動 亢 進 ,水 分 量 增 加 而 產 生 瀉 下 作 用 。  降 低 血 中 尿 素 氮 作 用 本 品 鼠 李 沒 食 子貳 ( rhatannin ) 成 分 以 腹 腔 給 藥 注 射 於 家 兔 ,可 降 低 血 中 尿 素 氮 (BUN) 作 用 。

    其 抗 菌 活 性 成 分 為 大 黃 酸 (rhein) ﹐ 大 黃 素 (emodin) ,而 遊 離 型 之 蔥 衍 生 物 之 抗 菌 性 較 弱 。

    水 抽 取 物  有 抗  病 毒 作 用; 抗 HBV。[1]

    Chemical ingredients:化學成份﹕

    Chemical ingredients:

    學 成 份﹕

    Chrysophanol

    大黃酚

    Rheumemodin

    大黃素

    Sennoside

    番瀉貳

    Heterodianthrone

    混二恩酮

    Chrysophanein

    大黃酚貳

    Catechin

    兒茶精

    2-O-Cinnamoyl - l,6-di-O-galloyl-β -D-glucoside

    桂皮醯沒食子貳

    Rhatannin

    鼠李沒食子貳

    Dosage:

    用量:

    3~12 g.

    3∼12 克。

    Samples of formulae:

    Modern Research:

    da huang can inhibit coxsackievirus B3

    Researchers at the medical school of Wuhan University of China announced  that researchers Zhan-Qiu Yang et al of their Virus Research Unit verified that although da huang can not directly kill CVB3 but it can induce the cells of CVB3 to shrink, peel off, and break thus it can stop CVB3 to multiply.

    武漢大學醫學院宣佈,該院病毒研究所楊佔秋研究員等在我國首次證實:傳統中藥大黃雖然不能直接“殺滅”CVB3,但卻可以導致CVB3出現細胞皺縮﹐脫落﹐碎裂等病變特征,阻止CVB3繼續增殖,抑制CVB3的复制,使其喪失“毒性”而發揮大黃的抗病毒作用,從而証明,傳統中藥大黃對柯薩奇病毒B3具有“誘殺”作用。

    Cautions:

    not suitable for patients with pixu (speen deficent) condition. Long term usage is not recommended. Constipation may follow after sudden dropping of usage of da huang after long period of time.

    脾虛胃寒者不宜服用。《中藥辭海》稱,大 黄含有多量鞣質,因此小劑量不僅不會引起瀉下作用,且呈收斂作用;停藥後,也往往出現繼發性便秘。

    含草酸,大劑量應用時有毒。

    [1] J Viral Hepat. 2013; 20(7): 445-452.

    Authentic medicinal plants of the herb da huang are: dried roots and rhizomes of Rheum palmatum L., Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. or Rheum officinale Baill. Their medicinal identify characteristics are: rhizome diameter are about 3 ~ 10cm. The medulla portions of new cross-sections are  broad, with design of star points ringing out or scattered. Take the product powder 0.2 g, add methanol 2 ml of warm soak for 10 minutes, let cool, and the supernatant 10 μl of points on filter paper, start with 45% ethanol, removed, dried, and allowed to stand for 10 minutes, review under UV light (365nm), should not show significant lasting bright purple fluorescent. (check Rumex II).

    The following except written by Shen Bao-An (沈保安) on identifying counterfeit da huang

    1. Rheum franzenbachii Munt  Its medicinal root diameter is about 1 ~ 5cm; cross-section without star points and shows purple fluorescence in the UV lamp.

    2. Rheum hotaoense C. Y. Cheng et C. T. Kao ts medicinal root diameter is about 1.5 ~ 4cm; without star points of the new cross-section and shows purple fluorescence in the UV lamp.

    3.  Rheum emodi Wall ts medicinal root diameter is about 1 ~ 5cm; new cross-section in the sunlight shows significant blue-gray, and shows violet fluorescence in the ultraviolet lamp was.

    4. Rheum wittrochii Lundstr Its medicinal root diameter is about 2.5 ~ 4cm; without star points of the new cross-section and shows purple fluorescence in the UV lamp.

     

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    以下取材自沈保安 編著的﹕

    安徽省常见中药材混亂品种的 鉴別﹐(安徽省 芜湖市药品檢 験所)

    大黃
      正品藥材為蓼科植物掌葉大黃 Rheum palmatum L.﹐唐古特大黃 Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf.或藥用大黃 Rheum officinale Baill.的干燥根及根莖。其藥材鑒別特征:根莖直徑3∼10cm。新橫斷面髓部寬廣,有星點環列或散在。取本品的粉末0.2g,加甲醇2ml,溫浸 10分鐘,放冷,取上清液10μl,點於濾紙上,以45%乙醇展開,取出,晾干,放置10分鐘,置紫外光燈(365nm)下檢視,不得顯持久的亮紫色熒光(檢查土大黃貳)。

    在台灣常見的大黃偽品主要有:

    1. 華北大黃 Rheum franzenbachii Munt.。其藥材根莖直徑1∼5cm;新橫斷面無星點,在紫外光燈下顯紫色熒光。

    2. 河套大黃 Rheum hotaoense C. Y. Cheng et C. T. Kao。其藥材根莖直徑1.5∼4cm;新橫斷面無星點,在紫外光燈下顯紫色熒光。

    3. 藏邊大黃 Rheum emodi Wall.。其藥材根莖直徑1∼5cm;新橫斷面在日光下顯藍灰色,在紫外光燈下顯紫色熒光。

    4. 天山大黃 Rheum wittrochii Lundstr.。其藥材根莖直徑2.5∼4cm;新橫斷面無星點,在紫外光燈下顯紫色熒光。

     

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